This long-term interdisciplinary approach has allowed the team to engage the local community, identify measures to protect public health, take emerging technologies into the field, forge advances in natural products chemistry, and develop a valuable pharmaceutical product.
Other brevetoxin-producing dinoflagellate blooms have been identified in diverse geographic locations worldwide, including New Zealand, Australia and Scotland Baden and Fleming ; Hernandez Becerril et al.
The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Harmful Algae See other articles in PMC that cite the published article.
Random sampling of these middle organisms will give us a first indication of a PSP outbreak.
What's more, the apparent expansion is, in part, likely due to more scientists studying harmful algal blooms and better methods to detect toxicity.
DNA damage in human lymphocytes treated with brevetoxins in vitro Sayer et al. Abstract This paper reviews the literature describing research performed over the past decade on the known and possible exposures and human health effects associated with Florida red tides.
Additional Resources For additional resources about red tide, harmful algal blooms, and related issues search the Microbial Life collection. Mouth to mouth resuscitation must be administered if there is trouble breathing until medical personnel take over treatment.
But in other places, the human story isn't so clear.
It can also be found in soft shell clams and blue mussels infected by Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima. It is unknown why these toxins are created, but some can be hazardous to larger organisms through the processes of biomagnification and bioaccumulation.